WHIPPANY, N.J., Sept. 20, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- Bayer will present new data from the company's expanding oncology business at the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Congress 2019, taking place September 27 to October 1 in Barcelona, Spain. The presentations to be featured at ESMO 2019 span data on approved therapies as well as new research from Bayer's early and late-stage oncology pipeline compounds.
New data on durability of response in adult and pediatric patients with TRK fusion cancer treated with a precision medicine agent, Vitrakvi® (larotrectinib) will be highlighted in a poster discussion. Vitrakvi was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in November 2018 under accelerated approval based on overall response rate and duration of response. Vitrakvi is approved for the treatment of adult and pediatric cancer patients with solid tumors with an NTRK gene fusion.1
Vitrakvi is approved in the U.S., Canada, and Brazil and is currently under regulatory review in the European Union (EU). Additional filings in other regions are underway or planned.
Across Bayer's prostate cancer franchise, data from the Phase III ARAMIS trial evaluating the clinical relevance of drug-drug interactions (DDI) with androgen receptor inhibitor (ARi) Nubeqa® (darolutamide) will be presented. Of note, real-world data and pain evaluation data from Xofigo® (radium Ra 223 dichloride) in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) from the PRORADIUM and PARABO observation studies will also be highlighted in poster presentations, respectively.
Bayer is committed to providing treatment options for men at different stages of the prostate cancer journey. With the approval of Nubeqa under the FDA Priority Review designation in July 2019 for the treatment of patients with non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (nmCRPC), Bayer now has two marketed prostate cancer treatments and is continuing research for additional therapies, including the investigational compound BAY 2315497 (PSMA-TTC) in mCRPC.2,3 Bayer has filed for marketing authorization for Nubeqa in the EU as well as Japan and is also in discussions with other health authorities regarding submissions. Nubeqa was developed jointly by Bayer and Orion Corporation, a globally operating Finnish pharmaceutical company.
Exploratory analysis of a multi-center, investigator-initiated research (IIR) Phase II REGOBONE study evaluating the efficacy and safety of Stivarga® (regorafenib) for the investigational use of locally advanced or metastatic relapsed chondrosarcoma will be presented in a late-breaking oral presentation. Chondrosarcoma is a rare type of cancer that usually begins in the bones but can sometimes occur in the soft tissue near bones.4 The most common locations for chondrosarcoma tumors are in the pelvis, hip and shoulder.4
The following is a list of notable oral and poster presentations at ESMO 2019:
Radium Ra 223 Dichloride (radium-223)
About Vitrakvi® (larotrectinib)1
Vitrakvi® is indicated for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with solid tumors that have an NTRK gene fusion without a known acquired resistance mutation, are either metastatic or where surgical resection will likely result in severe morbidity, and have no satisfactory alternative treatments or that have progressed following treatment.
This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on overall response rate and duration of response. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in confirmatory trials.
Important Safety Information for VITRAKVI® (larotrectinib)
Neurotoxicity: Among the 176 patients who received VITRAKVI, neurologic adverse reactions of any grade occurred in 53% of patients, including Grade 3 and Grade 4 neurologic adverse reactions in 6% and 0.6% of patients, respectively. The majority (65%) of neurologic adverse reactions occurred within the first three months of treatment (range 1 day to 2.2 years). Grade 3 neurologic adverse reactions included delirium (2%), dysarthria (1%), dizziness (1%), gait disturbance (1%), and paresthesia (1%). Grade 4 encephalopathy (0.6%) occurred in a single patient. Neurologic adverse reactions leading to dose modification included dizziness (3%), gait disturbance (1%), delirium (1%), memory impairment (1%), and tremor (1%).
Advise patients and caretakers of these risks with VITRAKVI. Advise patients not to drive or operate hazardous machinery if they are experiencing neurologic adverse reactions. Withhold or permanently discontinue VITRAKVI based on the severity. If withheld, modify the VITRAKVI dose when resumed.
Hepatotoxicity: Among the 176 patients who received VITRAKVI, increased transaminases of any grade occurred in 45%, including Grade 3 increased AST or ALT in 6% of patients. One patient (0.6%) experienced Grade 4 increased ALT. The median time to onset of increased AST was 2 months (range: 1 month to 2.6 years). The median time to onset of increased ALT was 2 months (range: 1 month to 1.1 years). Increased AST and ALT leading to dose modifications occurred in 4% and 6% of patients, respectively. Increased AST or ALT led to permanent discontinuation in 2% of patients.
Monitor liver tests, including ALT and AST, every 2 weeks during the first month of treatment, then monthly thereafter, and as clinically indicated. Withhold or permanently discontinue VITRAKVI based on the severity. If withheld, modify the VITRAKVI dosage when resumed.
Embryo-Fetal Toxicity: VITRAKVI can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Larotrectinib resulted in malformations in rats and rabbits at maternal exposures that were approximately 11- and 0.7-times, respectively, those observed at the clinical dose of 100 mg twice daily.
Advise women of the potential risk to a fetus. Advise females of reproductive potential to use an effective method of contraception during treatment and for 1 week after the final dose of VITRAKVI.
Most Common Adverse Reactions (≥20%): The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) were: increased ALT (45%), increased AST (45%), anemia (42%), fatigue (37%), nausea (29%), dizziness (28%), cough (26%), vomiting (26%), constipation (23%), and diarrhea (22%).
Drug Interactions: Avoid coadministration of VITRAKVI with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (including grapefruit or grapefruit juice), strong CYP3A4 inducers (including St. John's wort), or sensitive CYP3A4 substrates. If coadministration of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors or inducers cannot be avoided, modify the VITRAKVI dose as recommended. If coadministration of sensitive CYP3A4 substrates cannot be avoided, monitor patients for increased adverse reactions of these drugs.4
Lactation: Advise women not to breastfeed during treatment with VITRAKVI and for 1 week after the final dose.
Please see the full Prescribing Information  for VITRAKVI® (larotrectinib).
About Nubeqa® (darolutamide)2
Nubeqa® (darolutamide) is an androgen receptor inhibitor (ARi) with a distinct chemical structure that competitively inhibits androgen binding, AR nuclear translocation, and AR-mediated transcription.1 Nubeqa is approved for the treatment of patients with non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (nmCRPC).1 A Phase III study in metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (ARASENS) is ongoing. Information about this trial can be found at www.clinicaltrials.gov .
Bayer has submitted filings for darolutamide in the European Union (EU), Japan, and additional countries.
IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION for NUBEQA® (darolutamide)
Embryo-Fetal Toxicity: Safety and efficacy of NUBEQA have not been established in females. NUBEQA can cause fetal harm and loss of pregnancy. Advise males with female partners of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with NUBEQA and for 1 week after the last dose.
Serious adverse reactions occurred in 25% of patients receiving NUBEQA and in 20% of patients receiving placebo. Serious adverse reactions in ≥ 1 % of patients who received NUBEQA were urinary retention, pneumonia, and hematuria. Overall, 3.9% of patients receiving NUBEQA and 3.2% of patients receiving placebo died from adverse reactions, which included death (0.4%), cardiac failure (0.3%), cardiac arrest (0.2%), general physical health deterioration (0.2%), and pulmonary embolism (0.2%) for NUBEQA.
Adverse reactions occurring more frequently in the NUBEQA arm (≥ 2% over placebo) were fatigue (16% vs. 11%), pain in extremity (6% vs. 3%) and rash (3% vs. 1%).
Clinically significant adverse reactions occurring in ≥ 2% of patients treated with NUBEQA included ischemic heart disease (4.0% vs. 3.4% on placebo) and heart failure (2.1% vs. 0.9% on placebo).
Effect of Other Drugs on NUBEQA – Concomitant use of NUBEQA with a combined P-gp and strong or moderate CYP3A4 inducer decreases darolutamide exposure, which may decrease NUBEQA activity. Avoid concomitant use of NUBEQA with combined P-gp and strong or moderate CYP3A4 inducers.
Concomitant use of NUBEQA with a combined P-gp and strong CYP3A4 inhibitor increases darolutamide exposure, which may increase the risk of NUBEQA adverse reactions. Monitor patients more frequently for NUBEQA adverse reactions and modify NUBEQA dosage as needed.
Effects of NUBEQA on Other Drugs – NUBEQA is an inhibitor of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) transporter. Concomitant use of NUBEQA increases the exposure (AUC) and maximal concentration of BCRP substrates, which may increase the risk of BCRP substrate-related toxicities. Avoid concomitant use with drugs that are BCRP substrates where possible. If used together, monitor patients more frequently for adverse reactions, and consider dose reduction of the BCRP substrate drug. Consult the approved product labeling of the BCRP substrate when used concomitantly with NUBEQA.
For important risk and use information about Nubeqa, please see the full Prescribing Information .
About Xofigo® (radium Ra 223 dichloride) Injection3
Xofigo is indicated for the treatment of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer, symptomatic bone metastases and no known visceral metastatic disease.
Important Safety Information for Xofigo® (radium Ra 223 dichloride) Injection
Contraindications: Xofigo® is contraindicated in women who are or may become pregnant. Xofigo can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman
Warnings and Precautions:
Administration and Radiation Protection: Xofigo should be received, used, and administered only by authorized persons in designated clinical settings. The administration of Xofigo is associated with potential risks to other persons from radiation or contamination from spills of bodily fluids such as urine, feces, or vomit. Therefore, radiation protection precautions must be taken in accordance with national and local regulations
Fluid Status: Dehydration occurred in 3% of patients on Xofigo and 1% of patients on placebo. Xofigo increases adverse reactions such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting, which may result in dehydration. Monitor patients' oral intake and fluid status carefully and promptly treat patients who display signs or symptoms of dehydration or hypovolemia
Injection Site Reactions: Erythema, pain, and edema at the injection site were reported in 1% of patients on Xofigo
Secondary Malignant Neoplasms: Xofigo contributes to a patient's overall long-term cumulative radiation exposure. Long-term cumulative radiation exposure may be associated with an increased risk of cancer and hereditary defects. Due to its mechanism of action and neoplastic changes, including osteosarcomas, in rats following administration of radium -223 dichloride, Xofigo may increase the risk of osteosarcoma or other secondary malignant neoplasms. However, the overall incidence of new malignancies in the randomized trial was lower on the Xofigo arm compared to placebo (<1% vs 2%; respectively), but the expected latency period for the development of secondary malignancies exceeds the duration of follow-up for patients on the trial
Subsequent Treatment With Cytotoxic Chemotherapy: In the randomized clinical trial, 16% of patients in the Xofigo group and 18% of patients in the placebo group received cytotoxic chemotherapy after completion of study treatments. Adequate safety monitoring and laboratory testing was not performed to assess how patients treated with Xofigo will tolerate subsequent cytotoxic chemotherapy
Adverse Reactions: The most common adverse reactions (≥10%) in the Xofigo arm vs the placebo arm, respectively, were nausea (36% vs 35%), diarrhea (25% vs 15%), vomiting (19% vs 14%), and peripheral edema (13% vs 10%). Grade 3 and 4 adverse events were reported in 57% of Xofigo-treated patients and 63% of placebo-treated patients. The most common hematologic laboratory abnormalities in the Xofigo arm (≥10%) vs the placebo arm, respectively, were anemia (93% vs 88%), lymphocytopenia (72% vs 53%), leukopenia (35% vs 10%), thrombocytopenia (31% vs 22%), and neutropenia (18% vs 5%)
Please see the full Prescribing Information  for Xofigo (radium Ra 223 dichloride).
About Stivarga® (regorafenib)5
In April 2017, Stivarga was approved for use in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who have been previously treated with Nexavar® (sorafenib). In the United States, Stivarga is also indicated for the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) who have been previously treated with fluoropyrimidine-, oxaliplatin- and irinotecan-based chemotherapy, an anti-VEGFtherapy, and, if RAS wild-type, an anti-EGFR therapy. It is also indicated for the treatment of patients with locally advanced, unresectable or metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) who have been previously treated with imatinib mesylate and sunitinib malate.
Regorafenib is a compound developed by Bayer. In 2011, Bayer entered into an agreement with Onyx, now an Amgen subsidiary, under which Onyx receives a royalty on all global net sales of regorafenib in oncology.
Important Safety Information for STIVARGA® (regorafenib)
Hepatotoxicity: Severe drug-induced liver injury with fatal outcome occurred in STIVARGA-treated patients across all clinical trials. In most cases, liver dysfunction occurred within the first 2 months of therapy and was characterized by a hepatocellular pattern of injury. In metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), fatal hepatic failure occurred in 1.6% of patients in the STIVARGA arm and in 0.4% of patients in the placebo arm. In gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), fatal hepatic failure occurred in 0.8% of patients in the STIVARGA arm. In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), there was no increase in the incidence of fatal hepatic failure as compared to placebo.
Liver Function Monitoring: Obtain liver function tests (ALT, AST, and bilirubin) before initiation of STIVARGA and monitor at least every 2 weeks during the first 2 months of treatment. Thereafter, monitor monthly or more frequently as clinically indicated. Monitor liver function tests weekly in patients experiencing elevated liver function tests until improvement to less than 3 times the upper limit of normal (ULN) or baseline values. Temporarily hold and then reduce or permanently discontinue STIVARGA, depending on the severity and persistence of hepatotoxicity as manifested by elevated liver function tests or hepatocellular necrosis.
Infections: STIVARGA caused an increased risk of infections. The overall incidence of infection (Grades 1-5) was higher (32% vs 17%) in 1142 STIVARGA-treated patients as compared to the control arm in randomized placebo-controlled trials. The incidence of grade 3 or greater infections in STIVARGA treated patients was 9%. The most common infections were urinary tract infections (5.7%), nasopharyngitis (4.0%), mucocutaneous and systemic fungal infections (3.3%) and pneumonia (2.6%). Fatal outcomes caused by infection occurred more often in patients treated with STIVARGA (1.0%) as compared to patients receiving placebo (0.3%); the most common fatal infections were respiratory (0.6% vs 0.2%). Withhold STIVARGA for Grade 3 or 4 infections, or worsening infection of any grade. Resume STIVARGA at the same dose following resolution of infection.
Hemorrhage: STIVARGA caused an increased incidence of hemorrhage. The overall incidence (Grades 1-5) was 18.2% in 1142 patients treated with STIVARGA vs 9.5% with placebo in randomized, placebo-controlled trials. The incidence of grade 3 or greater hemorrhage in patients treated with STIVARGA was 3.0%. The incidence of fatal hemorrhagic events was 0.7%, involving the central nervous system or the respiratory, gastrointestinal, or genitourinary tracts. Permanently discontinue STIVARGA in patients with severe or life-threatening hemorrhage and monitor INR levels more frequently in patients receiving warfarin.
Gastrointestinal Perforation or Fistula: Gastrointestinal perforation occurred in 0.6% of 4518 patients treated with STIVARGA across all clinical trials of STIVARGA administered as a single agent; this included eight fatal events. Gastrointestinal fistula occurred in 0.8% of patients treated with STIVARGA and in 0.2% of patients in the placebo arm across randomized, placebo-controlled trials. Permanently discontinue STIVARGA in patients who develop gastrointestinal perforation or fistula.
Dermatological Toxicity: In randomized, placebo-controlled trials, adverse skin reactions occurred in 71.9% of patients with STIVARGA arm and 25.5% of patients in the placebo arm including hand-foot skin reaction (HFSR) also known as palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome (PPES) and severe rash, requiring dose modification. In the randomized, placebo-controlled trials, the overall incidence of HFSR was higher in 1142 STIVARGA-treated patients (53% vs 8%) than in the placebo-treated patients. Most cases of HFSR in STIVARGA-treated patients appeared during the first cycle of treatment. The incidences of Grade 3 HFSR (16% vs<1%), Grade 3 rash (3% vs <1%), serious adverse reactions of erythema multiforme (<0.1% vs0%), and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (<0.1% vs 0%) were higher in STIVARGA-treated patients. Across all trials, a higher incidence of HFSR was observed in Asian patients treated with STIVARGA (all grades: 72%; Grade 3:18%). Toxic epidermal necrolysis occurred in 0.02% of 4518 STIVARGA-treated patients across all clinical trials of STIVARGA administered as a single agent. Withhold STIVARGA, reduce the dose, or permanently discontinue depending on the severity and persistence of dermatologic toxicity.
Hypertension: Hypertensive crisis occurred in 0.2% in STIVARGA-treated patients and in none of the patients in placebo arm across all randomized, placebo-controlled trials. STIVARGA caused an increased incidence of hypertension (30% vs 8% in mCRC, 59% vs 27% in GIST, and 31% vs6% in HCC). The onset of hypertension occurred during the first cycle of treatment in most patients who developed hypertension (67% in randomized, placebo-controlled trials). Do not initiate STIVARGA until blood pressure is adequately controlled. Monitor blood pressure weekly for the first 6 weeks of treatment and then every cycle, or more frequently, as clinically indicated. Temporarily or permanently withhold STIVARGA for severe or uncontrolled hypertension.
Cardiac Ischemia and Infarction: STIVARGA increased the incidence of myocardial ischemia and infarction (0.9% with STIVARGA vs 0.2% with placebo) in randomized placebo-controlled trials. Withhold STIVARGA in patients who develop new or acute cardiac ischemia or infarction, and resume only after resolution of acute cardiac ischemic events if the potential benefits outweigh the risks of further cardiac ischemia.
Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome (RPLS): Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS), a syndrome of subcortial vasogenic edema diagnosed by characteristic finding on MRI occurred in one of 4800 STIVARGA-treated patients across all clinical trials. Perform an evaluation for RPLS in any patient presenting with seizures, severe headache, visual disturbances, confusion, or altered mental function. Discontinue STIVARGA in patients who develop RPLS.
Wound Healing Complications: Treatment with STIVARGA should be stopped at least 2 weeks prior to scheduled surgery. Resuming treatment after surgery should be based on clinical judgment of adequate wound healing. STIVARGA should be discontinued in patients with wound dehiscence.
Embryo-Fetal Toxicity: STIVARGA can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. There are no available data on STIVARGA use in pregnant women. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. Advise females of reproductive potential and males with female partners of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with STIVARGA and for 2 months after the final dose.
Nursing Mothers: Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in breast fed infants from STIVARGA, do not breastfeed during treatment with STIVARGA and for 2 weeks after the final dose.
Most Frequently Observed Adverse Drug Reactions in mCRC (≥30%): The most frequently observed adverse drug reactions (≥30%) in STIVARGA-treated patients vs placebo-treated patients in mCRC, respectively, were: asthenia/fatigue (64% vs 46%), pain (59% vs 48%),decreased appetite and food intake (47% vs 28%), HFSR/PPE (45% vs 7%), diarrhea (43% vs17%), mucositis (33% vs 5%), weight loss (32% vs 10%), infection (31% vs 17%), hypertension (30% vs 8%), and dysphonia (30% vs 6%).
Most Frequently Observed Adverse Drug Reactions in GIST (≥30%): The most frequently observed adverse drug reactions (≥30%) in STIVARGA-treated patients vs placebo treated patients in GIST, respectively, were: HFSR/PPE (67% vs 12%), pain (60% vs 55%), hypertension(59% vs 27%), asthenia/fatigue (52% vs 39%), diarrhea (47% vs 9%), mucositis (40% vs 8%),dysphonia (39% vs 9%), infection (32% vs 5%), decreased appetite and food intake (31%vs21%), and rash (30% vs 3%).
Most Frequently Observed Adverse Drug Reactions in HCC (≥30%): The most frequently observed adverse drug reactions (≥30%) in STIVARGA-treated patients vs placebo-treated patients in HCC, respectively, were: pain (55% vs 44%), HFSR/PPE (51% vs 7%), asthenia/fatigue (42% vs 33%), diarrhea (41% vs 15%), hypertension (31% vs 6%), infection (31%vs 18%), decreased appetite and food intake (31% vs 15%).
About NEXAVAR® (sorafenib) Tablets6
NEXAVAR is approved in the U.S. for the treatment of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma, patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma and patients with locally recurrent or metastatic, progressive, differentiated thyroid carcinoma refractory to radioactive iodine treatment.8
Important Safety Information For NEXAVAR® (sorafenib) Tablets
Contraindications: NEXAVAR is contraindicated in patients with known severe hypersensitivity to sorafenib or any other component of NEXAVAR.
NEXAVAR in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel is contraindicated in patients with squamous cell lung cancer.
Cardiovascular Events: In the SHARP (HCC) study, the incidence of cardiac ischemia/infarction was 2.7% in NEXAVAR-treated patients compared with 1.3% for placebo-treated group. In the TARGET (RCC) study, the incidence of cardiac ischemia/infarction was higher in the NEXAVAR-treated group (2.9%) compared with the placebo-treated group (0.4%). In the DECISION (DTC) study, the incidence of cardiac ischemia/infarction was 1.9% in the NEXAVAR-treated group compared with 0% in the placebo-treated group. Patients with unstable coronary artery disease or recent myocardial infarction were excluded from this study. Temporary or permanent discontinuation of NEXAVAR should be considered in patients who develop cardiovascular events.
Hemorrhage: An increased risk of bleeding may occur following NEXAVAR administration. In the SHARP (HCC) study, the following bleeding adverse reactions were reported in the NEXAVAR-treated vs. placebo-treated patients, respectively: bleeding from esophageal varices (2.4% vs. 4%) and bleeding with fatal outcome at any site (2.4% vs. 4%). In the TARGET (RCC) study, bleeding regardless of causality was reported in 15.3% of patients in the NEXAVAR-treated group and 8.2% of patients in the placebo-treated group. The incidence of CTCAE Grade 3 and 4 bleeding was 2% and 0%, respectively, in NEXAVAR-treated patients, and 1.3% and 0.2%, respectively, in placebo-treated patients. There was one fatal hemorrhage in each treatment group in the TARGET (RCC) study. In the DECISION (DTC) study, bleeding was reported in 17.4% of NEXAVAR-treated patients and 9.6% of placebo-treated patients; however, the incidence of CTCAE Grade 3 bleeding was 1% in NEXAVAR-treated patients and 1.4% in placebo-treated patients. There was no Grade 4 bleeding reported and there was one fatal hemorrhage in a placebo-treated patient. If any bleeding necessitates medical intervention, permanent discontinuation of NEXAVAR should be considered.
Hypertension: Monitor blood pressure weekly during the first 6 weeks and periodically thereafter, and treat, if required. In the SHARP (HCC) study, hypertension was reported in 9.4% of NEXAVAR-treated patients and 4.3% of patients in the placebo-treated group. In the TARGET (RCC) study, hypertension was reported in 16.9% of NEXAVAR-treated patients and 1.8% of patients in the placebo-treated group. In the DECISION (DTC) study, hypertension was reported in 40.6% of NEXAVAR-treated patients and 12.4% of placebo-treated patients. Hypertension was usually mild to moderate, occurred early in the course of treatment, and was managed with standard antihypertensive therapy. In cases of severe or persistent hypertension despite institution of antihypertensive therapy, consider temporary or permanent discontinuation of NEXAVAR.
Dermatologic Toxicities: Hand-foot skin reaction and rash are the most common adverse reactions attributed to NEXAVAR. Management of dermatologic toxicities may include topical therapies for symptomatic relief, temporary treatment interruption and/or dose modification of NEXAVAR, or in severe or persistent cases, permanent discontinuation of NEXAVAR. There have been reports of severe dermatologic toxicities, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). These cases may be life-threatening. Discontinue NEXAVAR if SJS or TEN are suspected.
Gastrointestinal Perforation: Gastrointestinal perforation was an uncommon adverse reaction and has been reported in less than 1% of patients taking NEXAVAR. Permanently discontinue NEXAVAR in the event of a gastrointestinal perforation.
Warfarin: Infrequent bleeding or elevations in the International Normalized Ratio (INR) have been reported in some patients taking warfarin while on NEXAVAR. Monitor patients taking concomitant warfarin regularly for changes in prothrombin time (PT), INR, or clinical bleeding episodes.
Wound Healing Complications: Temporary interruption of NEXAVAR therapy is recommended in patients undergoing major surgical procedures.
Increased Mortality, Concomitant Administration with Carboplatin/Paclitaxel & Gemcitabine/Cisplatin in Squamous Cell Lung Cancer: In a subset analysis of two randomized controlled trials in chemo-naïve patients with Stage IIIB-IV non-small cell lung cancer, patients with squamous cell carcinoma experienced higher mortality with the addition of NEXAVAR compared to those treated with carboplatin/paclitaxel alone (HR 1.81, 95% CI 1.19–2.74) and gemcitabine/cisplatin alone (HR 1.22, 95% CI 0.82-1.80). NEXAVAR, in combination with gemcitabine/cisplatin, is not recommended in patients with squamous cell lung cancer. The safety and effectiveness of NEXAVAR has not been established in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
QT Interval Prolongation: NEXAVAR can prolong the QT/QTc interval. QT/QTc interval prolongation increases the risk for ventricular arrhythmias. Avoid use in patients with congenital long QT syndrome. Monitor electrolytes and electrocardiograms in patients with congestive heart failure, bradyarrhythmias, drugs known to prolong the QT interval, including Class Ia and III antiarrhythmics. Correct electrolyte abnormalities (magnesium, potassium, calcium). Interrupt NEXAVAR if QTc interval is greater than 500 milliseconds or for an increase from baseline of 60 milliseconds or greater.
Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Sorafenib-induced hepatitis is characterized by a hepatocellular pattern of liver damage with significant increases of transaminases which may result in hepatic failure and death. Increases in bilirubin and INR may also occur. Liver function tests should be monitored regularly and in cases of increased transaminases without alternative explanation NEXAVAR should be discontinued.
Embryo-Fetal Toxicity: Based on its mechanism of action and findings in animals, NEXAVAR may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Sorafenib caused embryo-fetal toxicities in animals at maternal exposures that were significantly lower than the human exposures at the recommended dose of 400 mg twice daily. Advise pregnant women and females of reproductive potential of the potential risk to a fetus. Verify the pregnancy status of females of reproductive potential prior to initiation of NEXAVAR. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment and for 6 months following the last dose of NEXAVAR. Advise male patients with female partners of reproductive potential and pregnant partners to use effective contraception during treatment and for 3 months following the last dose of NEXAVAR.
Impairment of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Suppression in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma: NEXAVAR impairs exogenous thyroid suppression. In the DECISION (DTC) study, 99% of patients had a baseline thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level less than 0.8 mU/L. Elevation of TSH level above 0.5 mU/L was observed in 41% of NEXAVAR-treated patients as compared with 16% of placebo-treated patients. For patients with impaired TSH suppression while receiving NEXAVAR, the median maximal TSH was 1.6 mU/L and 25% had TSH levels greater than 4.4mU/L. Monitor TSH levels monthly and adjust thyroid replacement medication as need in patients with DTC.
Laboratory Abnormalities: In the HCC study, the most common laboratory abnormalities observed in the NEXAVAR arm versus the placebo arm, respectively, were hypoalbuminemia (59% vs. 47%), lymphopenia (47% vs. 42%), thrombocytopenia (46% vs. 41%), elevation in INR (42% vs. 34%), elevated lipase (40% vs. 37%), hypophosphatemia (35% vs. 11%), elevated amylase (34% vs. 29%), hypocalcemia (27% vs. 15%), and hypokalemia (9.5% vs. 5.9%).
In the RCC study, the most common laboratory abnormalities observed in the NEXAVAR arm versus the placebo arm, respectively, were hypophosphatemia (45% vs. 11%), anemia (44% vs. 49%), elevated lipase (41% vs. 30%), elevated amylase (30% vs. 23%), lymphopenia (23% vs. 13%), neutropenia (18% vs. 10%), thrombocytopenia (12% vs. 5%), hypocalcemia (12% vs. 8%), and hypokalemia (5.4% vs. 0.7%).
In the DTC study, the most common laboratory abnormalities observed in the NEXAVAR arm versus the placebo arm, respectively, were elevated ALT (59% vs. 24%), elevated AST (54% vs. 15%), and hypocalcemia (36% vs. 11%).The relative increase for the following laboratory abnormalities observed in NEXAVAR-treated DTC patients as compared to placebo-treated patients is similar to that observed in the RCC and HCC studies: lipase, amylase, hypokalemia, hypophosphatemia, neutropenia, lymphopenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia.
Most Frequently Observed Adverse Drug Reactions (≥20%): The most common adverse reactions reported in ≥20% of patients and at a higher rate in the NEXAVAR arm versus the placebo arm, respectively, in the SHARP (HCC) study included: diarrhea (55% vs. 25%), fatigue (46% vs. 45%), abdominal pain (31% vs. 26%), weight loss (30% vs. 10%), anorexia (29% vs. 18%), nausea (24% vs. 20%), and hand-foot skin reaction (21% vs. 3%). Grade 3/4 adverse reactions were 45% vs. 32%.
The most common adverse reactions reported in ≥20% of patients and at a higher rate in the NEXAVAR arm versus the placebo arm, respectively, in the TARGET (RCC) study included: diarrhea (43% vs. 14%), rash/desquamation (40% vs. 16%), fatigue (37% vs. 28%), hand-foot skin reaction (30% vs. 7%), alopecia (27% vs. 3%), and nausea (23% vs. 19%), anorexia (29% vs. 18%), nausea (23% vs. 19%). Grade 3/4 adverse reactions were 38% vs. 28%.
The most common adverse reactions reported in ≥20% of patients and at a higher rate in the NEXAVAR arm versus the placebo arm, respectively, in the DECISION (DTC) study included: palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome (PPES) (69% vs. 8%), diarrhea (68% vs. 15%), alopecia (67% vs. 8%), weight loss (49% vs. 14%), fatigue (41% vs. 20%), hypertension (41% vs. 12%), rash (35% vs. 7%), decreased appetite (30% vs. 5%), stomatitis (24% vs. 3%), nausea (21% vs. 12%), pruritus (20% vs. 11%), and abdominal pain (20% vs. 7%). Grade 3/4 adverse reactions were 65% vs 30%.
Drug Interactions: Avoid concomitant use of strong CYP3A4 inducers, when possible, because inducers can decrease the systemic exposure of sorafenib. NEXAVAR exposure decreases when co-administered with oral neomycin. Effects of other antibiotics on NEXAVAR pharmacokinetics have not been studied.
Lactation: Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in a breastfed child from NEXAVAR, advise lactating women not to breastfeed during treatment with NEXAVAR and for 2 weeks after the last dose.
About Oncology at Bayer
Bayer is committed to delivering science for a better life by advancing a portfolio of innovative treatments. The oncology franchise at Bayer now expands to six marketed products and several other assets in various stages of clinical development. Together, these products reflect the company's approach to research, which prioritizes targets and pathways with the potential to impact the way that cancer is treated.
Bayer is a global enterprise with core competencies in the life science fields of health care and nutrition. Its products and services are designed to benefit people by supporting efforts to overcome the major challenges presented by a growing and aging global population. At the same time, the Group aims to increase its earning power and create value through innovation and growth. Bayer is committed to the principles of sustainable development, and the Bayer brand stands for trust, reliability and quality throughout the world. In fiscal 2018, the Group employed around 117,000 people and had sales of 39.6 billion euros. Capital expenditures amounted to 2.6 billion euros, R&D expenses to 5.2 billion euros. For more information, go to www.bayer.com .
© 2019 Bayer
BAYER, the Bayer Cross, Vitrakvi, Nubeqa, Xofigo, Stivarga and Nexavar are registered trademarks of Bayer.
Rose Talarico, Tel. +1 862.404.5302
E-Mail: email@example.com 
This release may contain forward-looking statements based on current assumptions and forecasts made by Bayer management. Various known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors could lead to material differences between the actual future results, financial situation, development or performance of the company and the estimates given here. These factors include those discussed in Bayer's public reports which are available on the Bayer website at www.bayer.com . The company assumes no liability whatsoever to update these forward-looking statements or to conform them to future events or developments.
Intended for U.S. Media Only